Selasa, 23 Maret 2010

celine dion biography

From humble beginnings in a rural French Canadian home town, Céline Dion has risen to international superstardom like a shooting star. Céline has been called the premier contemporary pop vocalist of the Nineties. She has earned music industry accolades from around the world: Grammy Awards in the US, Juno and Felix Awards in Canada, and World Music Awards in Europe. The entire world has seen Céline Dion literally transform herself from a gifted pre-adolescent into an international superstar.

Born in Charlemagne (a small town 30 miles east of Montréal, Québec, Canada), Céline is the youngest of 14 children of a highly musical family. Her parents, both musicians, operated a small club, and on weekends, the entire family performed and entertained the local population. From the tender age of 5, Céline sang with her siblings and quickly acquired the ability to perform live. At the age of twelve, together with her mother and one of her brothers, Céline composed a French song which would forever alter the course of her life.

The demo tape containing the song was brought to the attention of René Angélil, a well respected personal manager. In January 1981, René was so taken by the voice of the young Céline, that he became determined to make her an internationally known talent - he even mortgaged his house to finance the recording of Céline's debut album!

Céline began to receive recognition for her talent in 1982, winning the Gold Medal at the Yamaha World Song Festival in Tokyo, along with the coveted Musician's Award for Top Performer. In 1983, she became the first Canadian ever to receive a Gold Record in France.

The streak of recognition had only just begun.

By 1988, Céline had established a strong name for herself in her native province of Québec, where she was enjoying superstar status, receiving numerous Felix Awards and racking up platinum albums. That same year, Céline won the prestigious Eurovision Song Contest in Dublin, Ireland, where she performed live before a television audience of 600 million viewers throughout Europe, the USSR, the Middle-East, Japan, and Australia.

In September 1990, Céline released 'Unison' - her first English-language album and her first for Sony Music - and scored a breakthrough US hit with the Top 5 single "Where Does My Heart Beat Now".

Céline's international breakthrough came when she recorded the title track for the soundtrack to the animated Disney hit movie 'Beauty and the Beast'. The song went to number one and garnered an Academy Award and a Grammy Award. "Beauty and the Beast" formed the cornerstone for Céline's second English language album, called simply 'Céline Dion'. That album produced four more hit singles including "Love Can Move Mountains," "Water From The Moon," "If You Asked Me To" and "Did You Give Enough Love." In Canada, the album went six times platinum and set the stage for an incredible streak of Juno Awards.

On December 17, 1994, Céline Dion and René Angélil were married at Notre Dame Basilica in Montréal.

At this time, the Céline juggernaut started rolling at a momentous pace in the UK. British fans took extremely well to "Think Twice," a ballad on 'The Colour Of My Love.' For five consecutive weeks, the song and album stood on top of the respective British charts, an achievement not replicated since 1965 and the heyday of The Beatles. "Think Twice" remained at number one for two more weeks, surpassing the magic million mark to become only the fourth million-selling single ever in the UK by a female artist.

With 'D'eux,' Céline achieved what everyone thought was impossible - introduced French music to the upper reaches of the British charts. The world had truly discovered Céline Dion.

Blessed with one of popular music's great voices, she has crossed all barriers - even that of language - with her electrifying series of international hits. With her breakneck pace of recording, video shoots, touring and appearing on TV shows and awards specials, it seems like Céline has time for little else. Not the case when it comes to an important cause. Céline has used her talents to further the cause of the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. In fact, one of Céline's most emotional songs ("Vole," from the 'D'eux' album, later translated into English as the song "Fly," which appears on the 'Falling Into You' album) is a touching memorial to her niece, Karine, who was taken from her by this disease.

Released in March 1996, 'Falling Into You' became the best-selling album released that year; topped the charts in 11 countries, and was voted Album of the Year and Best Pop Album at the 39th Annual Grammy Awards ceremony. The album has sold more than 25 million copies worldwide.

'Let's Talk About Love' is the follow-up to Céline's double Grammy Award-winning album. Recorded in London, New York and Los Angeles, 'Let's Talk About Love' features a host of special guests including some of popular music's greatest vocalists, songwriters, and producers.

'Let's Talk About Love' was released on the same day as the soundtrack of the motion picture 'Titanic'. Both albums featured the much-loved Titanic movie's theme song, "My Heart Will Go On," written by James Horner and produced by James Horner and Walter Afanasieff. "My Heart Will Go On" quickly became the wedding song of choice for Céline's fans.

In a stunning back-to-back achievement, 'Let's Talk About Love' went on to match the 27 million worldwide sales of its predecessor; 'Titanic' also sold over 27 million copies worldwide. It is the all-time best-selling orchestral soundtrack in recording history. Céline sang "My Heart Will Go On" on the worldwide telecast of the 70th Annual Academy Awards, live from the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles. The song won the Academy Award for Best Original Song -- the second Oscar for a song sung by Céline Dion, following "Beauty And The Beast".

A new French album, 'S'il suffisait d'aimer,' recorded in February 1998, was officially released worldwide on September 8. The first featured single, "Zola sourit" received rave responses on the radio all over the world. Céline first introduced her fans to the album's title track during her Let's Talk About Love World Tour.

Céline's next album, 'These Are Special Times,' featured sixteen songs for the holiday season, including the Christmas pop classics "Blue Christmas" and "The Christmas Song (Chestnuts Roasting On An Open Fire)"; and such traditional religious favorites as "O Holy Night" and "Adeste Fidelis (O Come All Ye Faithful)". In addition, 'These Are Special Times' produced the No. 1 single "I'm Your Angel," Céline's duet with R. Kelly, who wrote and produced the song; the Diane Warren-penned title track, "These Are Special Times"; and "The Prayer," a duet with Andrea Bocelli.

Also, in 1998, Dundurn Press released the much anticipated biography: Céline...The Authorized Biography. After travelling with Céline and her entourage for over a year and spending hours in one-on-one conversions with the star, Georges-Hébert Germain recounts the story of one of the world's best loved vocal artists. Céline and Georges-Hébert Germain later collaborated once again on Céline Dion...My Story, My Dream. Released in 2000, Céline recounts her story in her own words and straight from her heart. The autobiography is an exquisitely detailed portrait of Céline backstage, on the road, and in the recording studio.

'All The Way...A Decade Of Song' is a collection of Céline's greatest hits, including her chart-topping hit singles "The Power Of Love," "Because You Loved Me," "I'm Your Angel," and the Grammy and Academy Award-winning classic "My Heart Will Go On." Also included are "Beauty And The Beast," "It's All Coming Back to Me Now"; and "If You Asked Me To".

Seven brand-new songs, were recorded specifically for this collection, including the title song "All The Way," a respectful and loving tribute to one of Céline's all-time favourite singers, the late Frank Sinatra.

On New Year's Eve 1999, in Montréal, Céline Dion gave her last public performance before beginning a temporary hiatus from show business to enjoy her private life... and improve her golf game!

During Céline's hiatus, a compilation album, 'The Collector's Series...Volume One,' was released in October 2000. Among Céline's greatest hits and best-loved recordings, the album also includes "The Power of the Dream" which Céline performed at the opening ceremony of the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games as well as a Spanish version of "All By Myself".

But the greatest joy for Céline and René came with the birth of their son René-Charles Angélil, born January 25, 2001 at 1:00 AM, weighing 6 lbs, 8 oz. He was baptized six months later on July 25, 2001, in Montréal's grand Notre-Dame Basilica.

A new peak in Céline's spectacular career was reached when she released her new album 'A New Day Has Come' in March 2002, which ended her two-year hiatus. The album entered number one in more than 17 countries, including Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, United Kingdom, and the United States within two weeks of its debut. It features new tracks that range from pure 21st century pop, "A New Day Has Come" to dramatic ballads "Have You Ever Been In Love" and "I Surrender," from breathtaking dance music "Sorry For Love" to a pair of pre-rock classics "At Last;" and "Nature Boy." Other highlights include "I'm Alive," "Goodbye's (The Saddest Word)," and "Rain, Tax (It's Inevitable)".

The release of the album was accompanied by a blitz of TV specials, appearances on talk shows and magazine interviews all over the world.

In March 2003, Céline began a three-year commitment to appear five nights a week at The Colosseum at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, a 4000-seat arena designed for her show. A 90-minute event, A New Day... introduces a new form of entertainment, a fusion of song, performance art, theatrical innovation and state-of-the-art technology. The show was created by Dragone Productions, a team led by Franco Dragone, the creative spirit behind ten of the critically acclaimed productions by Cirque du Soleil.

On March 25th, to coincide with the opening of A New Day..., Céline released 'One Heart,' a brand new album featuring an upbeat cover of Roy Orbison's classic "I Drove All Night" as its first single. The album also includes songs produced by Ric Wake, Anders Bagge, Kristian Lundin, Peer Astrom, Max Martin, Mark Taylor, Erick Benzi et Humberto Gatica.

On October 14th of the same year, Céline released the much anticipated '1 fille & 4 types,' her first French album in five years. Artistic director Jean-Jacques Goldman, the power behind 'D'eux' (1995) and 'S'il suffisait d'aimer' (1998), had come up with an idea to surround her with three different writer-composers who have made their mark on the French music scene: Jacques Veneruso, Erick Benzi and master guitarist Gildas Arzel.

The voice of one or other of these incomparable artists accompanies Céline's performance throughout the album, produced by Benzi and guided by Goldman from start to finish. '1 fille & 4 types' debuted as the top selling in Canada, France and Switzerland in its first week of release. The first single, "Tout l'or des hommes" also made radio history by establishing the record for becoming the highest charting Francophone single on the National CHR Audience chart in the BDS era in Canada.

On June 14th, 2004, Céline's album 'A New Day...Live In Las Vegas' was released into stores worldwide. The album, which includes a behind-the-scenes DVD, features thirteen songs perfomed live on stage from her Las Vegas show A New Day... and two new studio-recorded tracks: "You and I" and "Ain't Gonna Look The Other Way". The live tracks feature Céline's most recognizable songs such as "My Heart Will Go On" and outstanding renditions including Barbra Streisand's "If I Could", Frank Sinatra's "I've Got The World On A String" and Stevie Wonder's "I Wish".

October 11th, 2004, Céline's latest album 'Miracle' officially hit stores worldwide. This is album is all about the love and bond between a mother and her child, something which is precious and cannot be compared. 'Miracle' includes Céline's newest single which has the same title as the album, and many others including "Bhram's Lullaby".

With each new release, Céline has managed to top her previous successes and, along the way, has become one of the brightest stars in the world of popular music. Who would have imagined that Quebec's best-kept secret could have conquered the world the way she has?

the rolling stones biography

The Rolling Stones began calling themselves the "World's Greatest Rock & Roll Band" in the late '60s, and few disputed the claim. The Rolling Stones' music, based on Chicago blues, has continued to sound vital through the decades, and the Stones' attitude of flippant defiance, now aged into wry bemusement, has come to seem as important as their music.

In the 1964 British Invasion they were promoted as bad boys, but what began as a gimmick has stuck as an indelible image, and not just because of incidents like Brian Jones’ mysterious death in 1969 and a violent murder during their set at Altamont later that year. In their music, the Stones pioneered British rock’s tone of ironic detachment and wrote about offhand brutality, sex as power, and other taboos. In those days, Mick Jagger was branded a “Lucifer” figure, thanks to songs like “Sympathy for the Devil.” In the ’80s the Stones lost their dangerous aura while still seeming “bad” — they’ve become icons of an elegantly debauched, world-weary decadence. But Jagger remains the most self-consciously assured appropriator of black performers’ up-front sexuality; Keith Richards’ Chuck Berry–derived riffing defines rock rhythm guitar (not to mention rock guitar rhythm); the stalwart rhythm section of Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts holds its own; and Jagger and Richards continue to add to what is arguably one of the most significant oeuvres in rock history.

Jagger and Richards first met at Dartford Maypole County Primary School. When they ran into each other 10 years later in 1960, they were both avid fans of blues and American R&B, and they found they had a mutual friend in guitarist Dick Taylor, a fellow student of Richards’ at Sidcup Art School. Jagger was attending the London School of Economics and playing in Little Boy Blue and the Blue Boys with Taylor. Richards joined the band as second guitarist; soon afterward, he was expelled from Dartford Technical College for truancy.

Meanwhile, Brian Jones had begun skipping school in Cheltenham to practice bebop alto sax and clarinet. By the time he was 16, he had fathered two illegitimate children and run off briefly to Scandinavia, where he began playing guitar. Back in Cheltenham he joined the Ramrods, then drifted to London with his girlfriend and one of his children. He began playing with Alexis Korner’s Blues, Inc., then decided to start his own band; a want ad attracted pianist Ian Stewart (b. 1938; d. December 12, 1985).

As Elmo Lewis, Jones began working at the Ealing Blues Club, where he ran into a later, loosely knit version of Blues, Inc., which at the time included drummer Charlie Watts. Jagger and Richards began jamming with Blues, Inc., and while Jagger, Richards, and Jones began to practice on their own, Jagger became the featured singer with Blues, Inc.

Jones, Jagger, and Richards shared a tiny, cheap London apartment, and with drummer Tony Chapman they cut a demo tape, which was rejected by EMI. Taylor left to attend the Royal College of Art; he eventually formed the Pretty Things. Ian Stewart’s job with a chemical company kept the rest of the group from starving. By the time Taylor left, they began to call themselves the Rolling Stones, after a Muddy Waters song.

On July 12, 1962, the Rolling Stones — Jagger, Richards, Jones, a returned Dick Taylor on bass, and Mick Avory, later of the Kinks, on drums — played their first show at the Marquee. Avory and Taylor were replaced by Tony Chapman and Bill Wyman, from the Cliftons. Chapman didn’t work out, and the band spent months recruiting a cautious Charlie Watts, who worked for an advertising agency and had left Blues, Inc. when its schedule got too busy. In January 1963 Watts completed the band.

Local entrepreneur Giorgio Gomelsky booked the Stones at his Crawdaddy Club for an eight-month, highly successful residency. He was also their unofficial manager until Andrew Loog Oldham, with financing from Eric Easton, signed them as clients. By then the Beatles were a British sensation, and Oldham decided to promote the Stones as their nasty opposites. He eased out the mild-mannered Stewart, who subsequently became a Stones roadie and frequent session and tour pianist.

In June 1963 the Stones released their first single, Chuck Berry’s “Come On.” After the band played on the British TV rock show Thank Your Lucky Stars, its producer reportedly told Oldham to get rid of “that vile-looking singer with the tire-tread lips.” The single reached Number 21 on the British chart. The Stones also appeared at the first annual National Jazz and Blues Festival in London’s borough of Richmond and in September were part of a package tour with the Everly Brothers, Bo Diddley, and Little Richard. In December 1963 the Stones’ second single, “I Wanna Be Your Man” (written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney), made the British Top 15. In January 1964 the Stones did their first headlining British tour, with the Ronettes, and released a version of Buddy Holly’s “Not Fade Away,” which made Number Three.

“Not Fade Away” also made the U.S. singles chart (Number 48). By this time the band had become a sensation in Britain, with the press gleefully reporting that band members had been seen urinating in public. In April 1964 their first album was released in the U.K., and two months later they made their first American tour. Their cover of the Bobby Womack/Valentinos song “It’s All Over Now” was a British Number One, their first. Their June American tour was a smashing success; in Chicago, where they’d stopped off to record the Five by Five EP at the Chess Records studio, riots broke out when the band tried to give a press conference. The Stones’ version of the blues standard “Little Red Rooster,” which had become another U.K. Number One, was banned in the U.S. because of its “objectionable” lyrics.

Jagger and Richards had now begun composing their own tunes (at first using the “Nanker Phelge” pseudonym for group compositions). Their “Tell Me (You’re Coming Back to Me)” was the group’s first U.S. Top 40 hit, in August. The followup, a nonoriginal, “Time Is on My Side,” made Number Six in November. From that point on, all but a handful of Stones hits were Jagger-Richards compositions.

In January 1965 their “The Last Time” became another U.K. Number One and cracked the U.S. Top 10 in the spring. The band’s next single, “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction,” reigned at Number One for four weeks that summer and remains perhaps the most famous song in its remarkable canon. Jagger and Richards continued to write hits with increasingly sophisticated lyrics: “Get Off My Cloud” (Number One, 1965), “As Tears Go By” (Number Six, 1965), “19th Nervous Breakdown” (Number Two, 1966), “Mother’s Little Helper” (Number Eight, 1966), “Have You Seen Your Mother, Baby, Standing in the Shadow?” (Number Nine, 1966).

Aftermath, the first Stones LP of all original material, came out in 1966, though its impact was minimized by the simultaneous release of the Beatles’ Revolver and Bob Dylan’s Blonde on Blonde. The Middle Eastern–tinged “Paint It, Black” (1966) and the ballad “Ruby Tuesday” (1967), were both U.S. Number One hits.

In January 1967 the Stones caused another sensation when they performed “Let’s Spend the Night Together” (“Ruby Tuesday”’s B side) on The Ed Sullivan Show. Jagger mumbled the title lines after threats of censorship (some claimed that the line was censored; others that Jagger actually sang “Let’s spend some time together”; Jagger later said, “When it came to that line, I sang mumble”). In February Jagger and Richards were arrested on drug-possession charges in Britain; in May, Brian Jones, too, was arrested. The heavy jail sentences they received were eventually suspended on appeal. The Stones temporarily withdrew from public appearances; Jagger and his girlfriend, singer Marianne Faithfull, went to India with the Beatles to meet the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. The Stones’ next single release didn’t appear until the fall: the Number 14 “Dandelion.” Its B side, “We Love You” (Number 50), on which John Lennon and Paul McCartney sang backup vocals, was intended as a thank-you to fans.

In December came Their Satanic Majesties Request, the Stones’ psychedelic answer record to the Beatles’ Sgt. Pepper — and an ambitious mess. By the time the album’s lone single, “She’s a Rainbow” had become a Number 25 hit, Allen Klein had become the group’s manager.

May 1968 saw the release of “Jumpin’ Jack Flash,” a Number Three hit, and a return to basic rock & roll. After five months of delay provoked by controversial album-sleeve photos, the eclectic Beggars Banquet was released and was hailed by critics as the band’s finest achievement. On June 9, 1969, Brian Jones, the Stones’ most musically adventurous member, who had lent sitar, dulcimer, and, on “Under My Thumb,” marimba to the band’s sound, and who had been in Morocco recording nomadic Joujouka musicians, left the band with this explanation: “I no longer see eye-to-eye with the others over the discs we are cutting.” Within a week he was replaced by ex–John Mayall guitarist Mick Taylor. Jones announced that he would form his own band, but on July 3, 1969, he was found dead in his swimming pool; the coroner’s report cited “death by misadventure.” Jones, beset by drug problems — and the realization that the band now belonged squarely to Jagger and Richards — had barely participated in the Beggars Banquet sessions.

At an outdoor concert in London’s Hyde Park a few days after Jones’ death, Jagger read an excerpt from the poet Shelley and released thousands of butterflies over the park. On July 11, the day after Jones was buried, the Stones released “Honky Tonk Women,” another Number One, and another Stones classic. By this time, every Stones album went gold in short order, and Let It Bleed (a sardonic reply to the Beatles’ soon-to-be-released Let It Be) was no exception. “Gimme Shelter” received constant airplay. Jones appeared on most of the album’s tracks, though Taylor also made his first on-disc appearances.

After going to Australia to star in the film Ned Kelly, Jagger rejoined the band for the start of its hugely successful 1969 American tour, the band’s first U.S. trip in three years. But the Stones’ Satanic image came to haunt them at a free thank-you-America concert at California’s Altamont Speedway. In the darkness just in front of the stage, a young black man, Meredith Hunter, was stabbed to death by members of the Hell’s Angels motorcycle gang, whom the Stones — on advice of the Grateful Dead — had hired to provide security for the event. The incident was captured on film by the Maysles brothers in their feature-length documentary Gimme Shelter. Public outcry that “Sympathy for the Devil” (which they had performed earlier in the show; they were playing “Under My Thumb” when the murder occurred) had in some way incited the violence led the Stones to drop the tune from their stage shows for the next six years.

After another spell of inactivity, the Get Yer Ya-Ya’s Out! live album was released in the fall of 1970 and went platinum. That same year the Stones formed their own Rolling Stones Records, an Atlantic subsidiary. The band’s first album for its own label, Sticky Fingers (Number One, 1971) — which introduced their Andy Warhol — designed lips-and-lolling-tongue logo — yielded hits in “Brown Sugar” (Number One, 1971) and “Wild Horses” (Number 28, 1971). Jagger, who had starred in Nicolas Roeg’s 1970 Performance (the soundtrack of which contained “Memo From Turner”), married Nicaraguan fashion model Bianca Perez Morena de Macias, and the pair became international jet-set favorites. Though many interpreted Jagger’s acceptance into high society as yet another sign that rock was dead, or that at least the Stones had lost their spark, Exile on Main Street (Number One, 1972), a double album, was another critically acclaimed hit, yielding “Tumbling Dice” (Number Seven) and “Happy” (Number 22). By this time the Stones were touring the U.S. once every three years; their 1972 extravaganza, like those in 1975, 1978, and 1981, was a sold-out affair.

Goats Head Soup (Number One, 1973) was termed the band’s worst effort since Satanic Majesties by critics, yet it contained hits in “Angie” (Number One, 1973) and “(Doo Doo Doo Doo Doo) Heartbreaker” (Number 15, 1974). It’s Only Rock n’ Roll (Number One, 1974) yielded Top 20 hits in the title tune and a cover of the Temptations’ “Ain’t Too Proud to Beg.” Mick Taylor left the band after that album; and after trying out scores of sessionmen (many of whom showed up on the next LP, 1976’s Black and Blue), the Stones settled on Ron Wood, then still nominally committed to Rod Stewart and the Faces (who disbanded soon after Wood joined the Stones officially in 1976). In 1979 Richards and Wood, with Meters drummer Ziggy Modeliste and fusion bassist Stanley Clarke, toured as the New Barbarians.

Black and Blue was the Stones’ fifth consecutive LP of new material to top the album chart, though it contained only one hit single, the Number 10 “Fool to Cry.” Wyman, who had released a 1974 solo album, Monkey Grip (the first Stone to do so), recorded another, Stone Alone. Jagger guested on “I Can Feel the Fire” on Wood’s solo first LP, I’ve Got My Own Album to Do. Wood has since recorded several more albums, and while none were commercial hits (Gimme Some Neck peaked at Number 45 in 1979), his work was generally well received.

The ethnic-stereotype lyrics of the title song from Some Girls (Number One, 1978) provoked public protest (the last outcry had been in 1976 over Black and Blue’s battered-woman advertising campaign). Aside from the disco crossover “Miss You” (Number One), the music was bare-bones rock & roll — in response, some speculated, to the punk movement’s claims that the band was too old and too affluent to rock anymore.

Richards and his longtime common-law wife, Anita Pallenburg, were arrested in March 1977 in Canada for heroin possession — jeopardizing the band’s future — but he subsequently kicked his habit and in 1978 was given a suspended sentence.

In 1981 Tattoo You was Number One for nine weeks (1980’s Emotional Rescue also went to Number One) and produced the hits “Start Me Up” (Number Two, 1981) and “Waiting on a Friend” (Number 13, 1981), the latter featuring jazz great Sonny Rollins on tenor saxophone. The 1981 tour spawned an album, Still Life, and a movie, Let’s Spend the Night Together (directed by Hal Ashby), which grossed $50 million.

Through the ’80s the group became more an institution than an influential force. Nevertheless, both Undercover (Number Four, 1983) and Dirty Work (Number Four, 1986) were certifiable hits despite not topping the chart, as every new studio album had done in the decade before. Each album produced only one Top 20 hit, “Undercover of the Night” (Number Nine, 1983) and “Harlem Shuffle” (Number Five, 1986), the latter a remake of a minor 1964 hit by Bob and Earl.

Jagger and Richards grew estranged from each other, and the band would not record for three years. Jagger released his first solo album, the platinum She’s the Boss, in 1984. His second, 1987’s Primitive Cool, didn’t even break the Top 40. Richards, who’d long declared he would never undertake a solo album (and who resented Jagger’s making music outside the band), countered in 1988 with the gold Talk Is Cheap, backed up by the X-Pensive Winos: guitarist Waddy Wachtel and the rhythm section of Steve Jordan and Charley Drayton.

The two Stones sniped at each other in the press and in song: Richards’ album track “You Don’t Move Me” was directed at his longtime partner. Nevertheless, shortly before the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in January 1989 the two traveled to Barbados to begin writing songs for a new Stones album. Steel Wheels (Number Three, 1989) showed the group spinning its wheels musically, and were it not for the band’s first American tour in eight years, it is doubtful the LP would have sold anywhere near its 2 million copies. But the 50-date tour, which reportedly grossed $140 million, was an artistic triumph. As the group’s fifth live album, Flashpoint (Number 16, 1991), demonstrated, never had the Stones sounded so cohesive onstage.

Bill Wyman announced his long-rumored decision to leave the group after 30 years, in late 1992. “I was quite happy to stop after that,” the 56-year-old bassist told a British TV show. The announcement helped deflect attention from Wyman’s love life: In 1989 he married model Mandy Smith, who was just 131⁄2 when the two began dating. The couple divorced in 1990, the same year that Mick Jagger finally married his longtime lover, Jerry Hall. (Jagger and Hall would later split up.)

The early ’90s were a time for solo albums from Richards — Live at the Hollywood Palladium and Main Offender (Number 99, 1992)and Jagger’s Wandering Spirit (Number 11, 1993). Neither sold spectacularly; apparently fans are most interested in Jagger and Richards when they work together. Wood released Slide on This, his first solo album in over a decade, and Watts pursued his real love, jazz, with the Charlie Watts Orchestra.

In 1994 Jagger, Richards, Watts, and Wood, along with bassist Darryl Jones (whose credits include working with Miles Davis and Sting) released the critically well-received Voodoo Lounge (Number Two, 1994) and embarked on a major tour that proved one of the highest-grossing of the year, earning a reported $295 million. Voodoo Lounge brought the Stones their first competitive Grammy, 1994’s Best Rock Album award. Voodoo Lounge was also the group’s first release under its new multimillion-dollar, three-album deal with Virgin Records, which included granting Virgin the rights to some choice albums from the Stones’ back catalogue, including Exile on Main Street, Sticky Fingers, and Some Girls. After having languished in storage for nearly three decades, the Rolling Stones’ Rock & Roll Circus concert film and soundtrack was released in 1996, which featured the Stones in the era of Beggars Banquet, and other rock luminaries — the Who, Jethro Tull, John Lennon and Yoko Ono, Eric Clapton, Taj Mahal, and more — as well as various acrobats, fire-eaters, and other circus artists who performed routines between songs.

Meanwhile, back to their standard time lapse of three years between tours, the Stones released Bridges to Babylon (Number Three, 1997, their 19th platinum LP) and launched yet another lavish, sold-out worldwide tour, where they played two-hour concerts consisting of only a few songs off the new album and lots of hits. Corporate sponsorship was particularly intense: long-distance carrier Sprint, for example, paying $4 million to print its company logo on tickets and stage banners. In 1998 the Stones released the obligatory tour album, No Security.

In 1997 Richards coproduced and played on Wingless Angels, an album of Rastafarian spirituals; guested, with Elvis Presley guitarist Scotty Moore, on All the King’s Men, a tribute to Presley; and with the rest of the Stones, played on B.B. King’s Deuces Wild. Assembling the roots-rock band the Rhythm Kings, with Peter Frampton and Georgie Fame sitting in, Bill Wyman put out three albums in the late ’90s. Watts continued his jazz excursions with 1996’s orchestral offering, Long Ago and Far Away, and then forayed into world beat with a 2000 collaboration with veteran session drummer Jim Keltner. Mick Taylor’s recording career revived, as the ex-Stone put out Stonesy releases with Carla Olson.

In 2000 "Satisfaction" topped a VH1 Poll of 100 Greatest Rock Songs. Jagger gained more attention in the social columns. In 1999 29-year-old Brazilian model Luciana Gimenez Morad claimed that she was pregnant with his child; Jagger disagreed. Jerry Hall filed for divorce. Jagger, despite the couple’s four children, maintained that their Hindu nuptials did not constitute a legal marriage. When Morad’s child was born, DNA tests concluded that Jagger was indeed the boy’s father. In 2001 he released his fourth solo album, Goddess in the Doorway (Number 39). At the post-9-11 "Concert for New York City," held at Madison Square Garden on Oct. 21, 2001, Jagger, Richards and a backing band performed "Salt of the Earth" and "Miss You."

In 2002, the Stones released Forty Licks, a greatest hits package including four new songs, and embarked on yet another tour, including two—one in Toronto and another in Hong Kong—to benefit victims of the SARS epidemic. In November 2003, the band inked a deal allowing the Best Buy chain to be the exclusive seller of their 4-DVD tour document Four Flicks. Some music retailers in the U.S. and Canada, including Best Buy competitor Circuit City and the 100-store HMV Canada, responded by pulling Stones merchandise from their shelves. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked the Stones No. 4 in its "100 Greatest Artists of All Time," just below the Beatles, Bob Dylan and Elvis Presley.

On Jagger’s 62nd birthday, July 26, 2005, the Stones announced they were releasing a new album, A Bigger Bang (Number 3), followed by a tour. The album included a rare political song from Jagger, "Sweet Neo Con," which was stingingly critical of the Bush Administration’s post Iraq War tactics and included the line, "You say you are a patriot/I think that you’re a crock of shit." The Stones’ A Bigger Bang Tour began in August 2005 and by year’s end had already set the year’s record at $162 million in gross receipts. The tour took the band from North and South America to Europe, Asia and even the 2006 Super Bowl. The tour ended two years later in London. Overall, the Bigger Bang tour earned a staggering $558 million, the highest-grossing tour of all time. The tour was not without its setbacks. During the New Zealand stretch, in May 2006, Richards was hospitalized for brain surgery after reportedly falling from a coconut tree in Fiji. In June, Wood went into rehab for alcohol problems.

The Stones released another 4-CD box set, The Biggest Bang, in June 2007; it also was sold exclusively through Best Buy. The Very Best Of Mick Jagger, a collection of the singer’s solo works, came out in October 2007. Filmmaker Martin Scorsese's April 2008 documentary Shine a Light intimately captured the Stones' 2006 Bigger Bang live performance at New York City's Beacon Theater from sixteen different camera angles and included guest performances by Christina Aguilera, Jack White, and Buddy Guy.

The Beatles: The Biography

FORMED: 1960, Liverpool, England

Inspired by the "skiffle boom", a student at Quarry Bank School in Liverpool named John Lennon decided to form a group in 1957 which laid the foundation to what was to become the most famous rock band of all time. John's original name was "The Blackjacks". However, this name only lasted a week and John used the school name as inspiration for the later name "The Quarry Men" in March 1957. John sang and played guitar, Colin Hanton played drums, Eric Griffiths on guitar, Pete Shotton on washboard, Rod Davis on banjo and Bill Smith on tea-chest bass. Bill was soon replaced by Ivan Vaughan.

John was inspired by "Heartbreak Hotel" and became a fan of American rock 'n' roll music. He introduced songs by Buddy Holly , Carl Perkins, The Coasters, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis and Gene Vincent into their repertoire. On July 6, 1957, Ivan Vaughan invited Paul McCartney to see their gig at The Woolton Parish Church Fete. The fifteen-year-old McCartney was introduce to sixteen-year-old Lennon and a unique song writing partnership began.

The line-up of The Quarry Men increased to seven with Paul on guitar and vocals, John Lowe on piano and George Harrison on guitar and vocals. Soon Griffiths and another member would leave, leaving a five-piece band. The group appeared at several local talent contests but had very few gigs. By January 1959, the group wasn't operating. Although John and Paul kept in touch, George had joined the Les Stewart Quartet.

That might have been the end of The Quarry Men but they had a stroke of luck. The Les Stewart Quartet had been booked as a resident band at a new club called "The Casbah". It was run by Mrs. Mona Best to support her son's Pete and Rory. Stewart, upset because his guitarist Ken Brown help decorate the club, refused to play there. Ken and George walked out of the group and George contacted John and Paul, and The Quarry Men were reunited as a quartet. After about seven gigs at the club, Ken Brown left over a disagreement about money. From October 1959 to January 1960 John, Paul and George continued as a trio with Paul on drums. They called themselves "Johnny & the Moondogs".

By this time John was enrolled in The Liverpool College of Art. John knew that they needed a bass player so he asked two students if they would like the position. The two were Stuart Sutcliffe and Rod Murray. Both could not afford a guitar, so Rod started to make one by hand. However, Stuart was able to sell one of his paintings to a John Moores Exhibition and was able to buy a Hofner bass guitar and join the group in January, 1960. At this time the group had changed its name to "Silver Beetles". They also began shifting drummers around, the first was Tommy Moore who toured with them through Scotland and then left. The next was Norman Chapman but he left after only a few weeks. Finally, George suggested that Pete Best, the son of club owner Mrs. Mona Best, become the group's drummer.

Paul contacted Pete and offered him the drummer seat, he took it. The group had finally settled on "The Beatles" just before their first trip to Hamburg in August, 1960. Now John, Paul, George, Stuart and Pete would head off for Hamburg. At that time The Beatles weren't considered to be the leading group in Liverpool and in most cases were looked down upon. In Hamburg they pulled their act together musically. This was caused by the fact that they had to play such long hours and were bullied by the club owner Bruno Koschimider to "make a show". It wasn't just Hamburg that made them special. The fact that Liverpool had so many venues for local acts to play at, coupled with the rivalry between more than 300 Merseyside groups, continued to forge The Beatles until they were to be regarded as Liverpool's top band.

At the time, Pete Best was regarded as the most potent symbol in the band. After Hamburg, Stuart Sutcliffe had left and now The Beatles were a four-piece band and Paul took over as bass guitarist. John, Paul and George were the three front-line guitarists and they alternated as lead singers and also performed vocal harmony with either John and Paul or all three. Pete Best played drums and occasionally sang one song but he had developed a distinctive drum sound called "the atom beat" which many other drummers tried to copy.

By this time, The Beatles had hired Brian Epstein as their manager and he signed them up for an audition with Decca Records. The head of Decca Records told The Beatles manager, "Guitar groups are on their way out Mr. Epstein.". The Beatles were devastated by their failed audition but Epstien secured them a contract with Parlophone Records. George Martin became their A&R Man. In August of 1962, Pete Best was replaced by Ringo Starr.

Their first single "Love Me Do" was issued on October 5, 1962, and was a modest hit. 1963 and 1964 proved to be the most important years in their careers. In 1963 the "Beatlemania" craze had started in Britain and The Beatles were no longer support acts at concerts. Now they were starring in the Royal Variety Show and the highest rating TV show "Sunday Night At The London Palladium".

Their biggest year was 1964 when they conquered the biggest record market in the world - America. The group became symbols. America was mourning the death of President John F. Kennedy and The Beatles appeared on the scene to bring them fun and excitement and end their mourning. They also brought back rock 'n' roll to America. After Elvis had join the army, he lost much of his early rebelliousness. Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry were rocked by scandals and their careers suffered. Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper and Ritchie Valens had been killed in an plane crash. The American media was promoting what The Beatles called "One-Hit-Wonders" such as Frankie Avalon, Tab Hunter, James Darren, etc.

Ed Sullivan had been at London airport when The Beatles return from Sweden and saw all the girls screaming, the boys cheering and the media taking pictures. He knew they were something special and he booked them on his TV show "The Ed Sullivan Show". That show received the highest ratings in the history of television up to then. That same year The Beatles toured America for the first time and starred in their first motion picture "A Hard Day's Night". In 1965, The Beatles second motion picture "HELP!" premiered. Later that year, The Beatles performed at Shea Stadium in New York to a crowd of 55,000 screaming fans. The largest live audience in history. Their tours did have their darker moments. The first being in Tokyo, Japan where The Beatles were locked up in their hotel and were not allowed to come out until show time. The next was in the Philippines when, on a day off, Madam Marcos asked them to attend a Royal dinner. The Beatles politely turned down the invitation and the public was furious. The Bea
tles quickly left.

In 1966, The Beatles were under heavy pressure from the press after John made a remark that The Beatles were more popular than Jesus. John had to apologize and explain himself several times. Not only that but their tour of America was plagued with mishaps. On August 19, 1966 they receive a death threat in Memphis and a firecracker went off during the show terrifying The Beatles. The next day in Cincinnati a concert promoter failed to provide a stage canopy and can't understand why The Beatles were unwilling to play electric guitars in a rainstorm. Paul becomes so agitated he becomes ill. On August 28, 1966 at Dodger Stadium, L.A. cops are seen beating teenage girls. Dozens are trampled in the chaos.

During the sixties, The Beatles not only became a musical phenomenon, they affected the styles and fashions of the decade. They transformed the record industry as well. They brought about royalties for artists and producers, revolutionized music tours, and started the Pop promo film or what we know today as "The Music Video". Everyone of their albums, from Please Please Me to Abbey Road were all popular and unique in their own way. But after the death of their long time manager Brian Epstein, things would start to fall apart for The Beatles.

Due to outside interests the group focused less and less and the band. In late 1964 they were introduced to marijuana and would experiment with more drugs such as LSD which they were first introduced to in late 1965. The Beatles played their last concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco on August 29, 1966. In 1967, their manager Brian Epstein died of a accidental drug overdose. Some friction was caused between John and Paul because Paul was trying to become the leader of the group after Brian's death. Ties were still strong at this point between the band members despite Ringo leaving the band for a short time during The White Album because he felt left out. When Ringo decided to return he found his drum kit decked with flowers and the others tried to include him more.

After The White Album they embarked on the "Let It Be" project. The idea was to see The Beatles jam, rehearse and record a whole new album of songs. At the end they would give a concert from some spectacular place. Tensions were high between Paul and George as they started recording at Twickenham Film Studios. John was off in his land of love with Yoko and Ringo was left in the background. One day George walked out on a session after a disagreement with Paul. George came back to finish up the album but as John would later explain, "We couldn't play the game anymore, we just couldn't do it".

The Beatles gave their last public appearance on top of the Apple building on January 30, 1969. However their "Let It Be" album was deemed un-releasable. It was handed over to Phil Spector who added lush orchestrations to such songs as "The Long and Winding Road", infuriating Paul. Despite all of this, The Beatles decided to get together to make one final album "Abbey Road" which would go on to become their biggest selling record in history. It was mainly Paul who kept the group together this long, encouraging them to make Magical Mystery Tour back in 1967 after Brian's death and trying to get them all excited about recording and performing. Recording yes, performing no. From Sgt. Pepper's through Abbey Road these were considered to be their "studio years" where they rarely got together except to record. The Let It Be album was finally released on May 8, 1970 less than a month after Paul publicly announced he was no longer a member of the group.

In the end, The Beatles became true legends. Their music touched all our lives. The Beatles wanted more than just to "Be Beatles", they wanted happiness. A happiness that they once had back when they first became successful. John found happiness with his one true love Yoko, his Plastic Ono Band, and son Sean; Paul found happiness with Linda, his children, and Wings; George found happiness with his solo career, Olivia, and his son Dhani; and Ringo found happiness with his solo career, acting career, Barbara, and his sons. They will always be the greatest rock 'n' roll band in history.


1.Sumber Sejarah
Beberapa pendapat dari ahli
a.R. Moh Ali
Sumber sejarah adalah segala sesuatu yang berwujud dan tidak berwujud serta berguna bagi penelitian sejarah Indonesia sejak zaman Purba sampai sekarang.
b.Zidi Gozalba
Sumber sejarah adalah warisan yang berbentuk lisan, tertulis, dan visual.
c.Muh yamin
sumber sejarah adalah kumpulan benda kebudayaan untuk membuktikan sejarah.
Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sumber sejarah adalah segala warisan kebudayaan yang berbentuk lisan, tertulis, visual serta daapat digunakan untuk mencari kebenaaran, baik yang terdapat di Indonesia maupun di luar wilayah Indonesia sejak zaman Prasejarah sampai sekarang.
Sumber sejarah terbagi menjadi 3 yaitu:
a.Sumber tertulis
sumber tertulis adalah segala keterangan dalam bentuk laporan tertulis yang memuat fakta-fakta sejarah secara jelas. sumber uini dapat ditemukan pada batu, kayu, kertas, dinding gua.
b.Sumber lisan
sumber lisan adalah segala keterangan yang dituturkan oleh pelaku atau saksi peristiwa yangterjadi di masa lalu. sumber ini merupakan sumber pertama yang digunakan manusia dalam mewariskan suatu peristiwa sejarah namun kadar kebenaran nya sangat terbatas karena terntung pada kesan, ingatan, dan tafsiran si pencerita.
c.Sumber benda
Sumber benda adalah segala keterangan yang dapat diperoleh dari benda-benda peninggalan budaya atau lazim dinamakan benda-benda purbakala atau kuno. sumber ini dapat ditemukan pada benda-benda yang terbuat dari batu, logam, kayu, tanah.
Sumber sejarah dapat juga dibedakan menjadi:
a.Sumber Primer
sumber primer adalah kesaksian dari seorang saksi yang melihat peristiwa bersejarah dengan mata kepala sendiri atau saksi denganmenggunakan panca indera lain atau dengan alat mekanis yang hadir pada peristiwa itu (saksi pandangan mata, misalnya kamera, mesin ketik, alat tulis, kertas. sumber primer haruslah sezaman dengan peristiwa yang dikisahkan.
b.Sumber Sekunder
sumber sekunder adalah kesaksian dari siapa pun yangbukan merupakan saksi pandangan mata, yaitu seseorang yang tidak hadir pada peristiwa yang dikisahkan . misalnya hasil liputan koran dapat menjadi sumber sekunder karena koran tidak hadir langsung pada suatu peristiwa. peliputnya (wartawan) yang hadir pada peristiwa itu terjadi.

2.Bukti Sejarah
Bukti sejarah terbagi menjadi:
a.Bukti tertulis
Bukti tertulis miripp dengan sumber tertulis pada sumber sejarah yang memuat fakta-fakta sejarah secara jelas. bukti tidak tertulis dapat berupa cerita atau tradisi.
b.Bukti tidak tertulis
Bukti tidak tertulis sudah barang tentu tidak berwujud benda konkret, meskiopun demikian mengandung unsur-unsur sejarah. bukti tidak tertulis dapat berupa cerita atau tradisi.

3.Fakta Sejarah
Fakta Sejarah adalah data yang terseleksi yang berasal dari berbagai sumber sejarah. dalam fakta sejarah terdapat beberapa unsur, yaitu:
a.Fakta Mental
Fakta Mental adalahkondisi yang dapat menggambarkan kemungkinan suasaana alam, pikiran, pandangan hidup, pendidikan, status sosial, perasaan, dan sikap yang mendasari penciptaan suatu benda. misalnya pembuatan pembuatan nekara perunggu.
b.Fakta Sosial
Fakta Sosial adalah kondisi yang dapat menggambarkan tentang keadaan sosial di sekitar tokoh pencipta benda, seperti suasana zaman, keadaan lingkungan, dan sistem kemasyarakatannya. berdasarkan hasil penemuan benda-benda sejarah , seorang sejarawan dapat memperkirakan fakta sosialnya.

Bukti dan fakta sejarah merupakan kumpulan peristiwa yang dipilih berdasarkantingkat keerartian dan keterkaitannya dengan proses sejarah tertentu. berbagai macam fakta yang pada awalnya berdiri sendiri direkonstruksi kembali menjadi satukesatuan yang saling berhubungan dan bermakna. berbagai peristiwa masa lalu, bahkan ratusan tahun lalu yang dapat direkonstruksi kembali berdasarkan sumber-sumber sejarah.

Senin, 15 Maret 2010

James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (lahir di Edinburgh, 13 Juni 1831 – meninggal di Cambridge, 15 November 1879 pada umur 48 tahun) adalah fisikawan Skotlandia yang pertama kali menulis hukum magnetisme dan kelistrikan dalam rumus matematis. Pada tahun 1864, ia membuktikan bahwa gelombang elektromagnetik ialah gabungan dari osilasi medan listrik dan magnetik. Maxwell mendapati bahwa cahaya ialah salah satu bentuk radiasi elektromagnetik. Ia juga membuka pemahaman tentang gerak gas, dengan menunjukkan bahwa laju molekul-molekul di dalam gas bergantung kepada suhunya masing-masing.


Dalam fisika, suatu orbit adalah jalan yang dilalui oleh objek, di sekitar objek lainnya, di dalam pengaruh dari gaya tertentu. Orbit pertama kali dianalisa secara matematis oleh Johannes Kepler yang merumuskan hasil perhitungannya dalam hukum Kepler tentang gerak planet. Dia menemukan bahwa orbit dari planet dalam tata surya kita adalah berbentuk elips dan bukan lingkaran atau episiklus seperti yang semula dipercaya.
Daftar isi

* 1 Sejarah
* 2 Orbit Bumi
* 3 Peran dalam evolusi teori atom
* 4 Pranala luar

[sunting] Sejarah

Isaac Newton menunjukkan bahwa hukum Kepler dapat di turunkan dari teori gravitasi. Pada umumnya, gerak benda dalam lingkup pengaruh gravitasi merupakan lintasan yg berbentuk irisan kerucut. Newton kemudian menunjukkan bahwa sepasang benda akan saling mengitari dengan jarak yg berbanding terbalik dengan massanya dan sekitar titik pusat massa (t.p.m.) gabungan dari kedua benda tadi. Bila salah satu benda jauh lebih besar (massive) dari yang satunya, maka t.p.m. nya akan mendekati t.p.m. benda yg lebih besar tadi.
[sunting] Orbit Bumi

Gerak bumi terhadap matahari dengan bentuk elips. Bumi mengorbit mengelilingi matahari dan bulan berberak mengelilingi bumi.
[sunting] Peran dalam evolusi teori atom

Pada saat struktur atom pertama di selidiki pada awal abad 20, atom di gambarkan sebagai tata surya kecil yang di ikat dengan Gaya Coulomb. Model ini tidak sejalan dengan elektrodimanika dan model ini secara perlahan diperbaiki sejalan dengan perubahan teori kuantum. Akan tetapi, masih ada istilah peninggalan "orbit" untuk menggambarkan keberadaan energi elektron dalam mengitari nukleus atom.

Mekanika klasik

Mekanika klasik adalah bagian dari ilmu fisika mengenai gaya yang bekerja pada benda. Sering dinamakan "mekanika Newton" dari Newton dan hukum gerak Newton. Mekanika klasik dibagi menjadi sub bagian lagi, yaitu statika (mempelajari benda diam), kinematika (mempelajari benda bergerak), dan dinamika (mempelajari benda yang terpengaruh gaya). Lihat juga mekanika.

Mekanika klasik menghasilkan hasil yang sangat akurat dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Dia diikuti oleh relativitas khusus untuk sistem yang bergerak dengan kecepatan sangat tinggi, mendekati kecepatan cahaya, mekanika kuantum untuk sistem yang sangat kecil, dan medan teori kuantum untuk sistem yang memiliki kedua sifat di atas. Namun, mekanika klasik masih sangat berguna, karena ia lebih sederhana dan mudah diterapkan dari teori lainnya, dan dia juga memiliki perkiraan yang valid dan luas terapannya. Mekanika klasik dapat digunakan untuk menjelaskan gerakan benda sebesar manusia (seperti gasing dan bisbol), juga benda-benda astronomi (seperti planet dan galaksi, dan beberapa benda mikroskopis (seperti molekul organik).

Mekanika klasik menggambarkan dinamika partikel atau sistem partikel. Dinamika partikel demikian, ditunjukkan oleh hukum-hukum Newton tentang gerak, terutama oleh hukum kedua Newton. Hukum ini menyatakan, "Sebuah benda yang memperoleh pengaruh gaya atau interaksi akan bergerak sedemikian rupa sehingga laju perubahan waktu dari momentum sama dengan gaya tersebut".

Hukum-hukum gerak Newton baru memiliki arti fisis, jika hukum-hukum tersebut diacukan terhadap suatu kerangka acuan tertentu, yakni kerangka acuan inersia (suatu kerangka acuan yang bergerak serba sama - tak mengalami percepatan). Prinsip Relativitas Newtonian menyatakan, "Jika hukum-hukum Newton berlaku dalam suatu kerangka acuan maka hukum-hukum tersebut juga berlaku dalam kerangka acuan lain yang bergerak serba sama relatif terhadap kerangka acuan pertama".

Konsep partikel bebas diperkenalkan ketika suatu partikel bebas dari pengaruh gaya atau interaksi dari luar sistem fisis yang ditinjau (idealisasi fakta fisis yang sebenarnya). Gerak partikel terhadap suatu kerangka acuan inersia tak gayut (independen) posisi titik asal sistem koordinat dan tak gayut arah gerak sistem koordinat tersebut dalam ruang. Dikatakan, dalam kerangka acuan inersia, ruang bersifat homogen dan isotropik. Jika partikel bebas bergerak dengan kecepatan konstan dalam suatu sistem koordinat selama interval waktu tertentu tidak mengalami perubahan kecepatan, konsekuensinya adalah waktu bersifat homogen.
Daftar isi

* 1 Prinsip Hamilton
* 2 Persamaan Lagrange
* 3 Mengapa perlu formulasi Lagrangian?
* 4 Mekanika Klasik dan Fisika Modern
* 5 Lihat pula

[sunting] Prinsip Hamilton
Analisa gerakan proyektil merupakan salah satu bagian dari mekanika klasik.

Jika ditinjau gerak partikel yang terkendala pada suatu permukaan bidang, maka diperlukan adanya gaya tertentu yakni gaya konstrain yang berperan mempertahankan kontak antara partikel dengan permukaan bidang. Namun sayang, tak selamanya gaya konstrain yang beraksi terhadap partikel dapat diketahui. Pendekatan Newtonian memerlukan informasi gaya total yang beraksi pada partikel. Gaya total ini merupakan keseluruhan gaya yang beraksi pada partikel, termasuk juga gaya konstrain. Oleh karena itu, jika dalam kondisi khusus terdapat gaya yang tak dapat diketahui, maka pendekatan Newtonian tak berlaku. Sehingga diperlukan pendekatan baru dengan meninjau kuantitas fisis lain yang merupakan karakteristik partikel, misal energi totalnya. Pendekatan ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan prinsip Hamilton, dimana persamaan Lagrange yakni persamaan umum dinamika partikel dapat diturunkan dari prinsip tersebut.

Prinsip Hamilton mengatakan, "Dari seluruh lintasan yang mungkin bagi sistem dinamis untuk berpindah dari satu titik ke titik lain dalam interval waktu spesifik (konsisten dengan sembarang konstrain), lintasan nyata yang diikuti sistem dinamis adalah lintasan yang meminimumkan integral waktu selisih antara energi kinetik dengan energi potensial.".
[sunting] Persamaan Lagrange

Persamaan gerak partikel yang dinyatakan oleh persamaan Lagrange dapat diperoleh dengan meninjau energi kinetik dan energi potensial partikel tanpa perlu meninjau gaya yang beraksi pada partikel. Energi kinetik partikel dalam koordinat kartesian adalah fungsi dari kecepatan, energi potensial partikel yang bergerak dalam medan gaya konservatif adalah fungsi dari posisi.

Jika didefinisikan Lagrangian sebagai selisih antara energi kinetik dan energi potensial. Dari prinsip Hamilton, dengan mensyaratkan kondisi nilai stasioner maka dapat diturunkan persamaan Lagrange. Persamaan Lagrange merupakan persamaan gerak partikel sebagai fungsi dari koordinat umum, kecepatan umum, dan mungkin waktu. Kegayutan Lagrangian terhadap waktu merupakan konsekuensi dari kegayutan konstrain terhadap waktu atau dikarenakan persamaan transformasi yang menghubungkan koordinat kartesian dan koordinat umum mengandung fungsi waktu. Pada dasarnya, persamaan Lagrange ekivalen dengan persamaan gerak Newton, jika koordinat yang digunakan adalah koordinat kartesian.
[sunting] Mengapa perlu formulasi Lagrangian?

Dalam mekanika Newtonian, konsep gaya diperlukan sebagai kuantitas fisis yang berperan dalam aksi terhadap partikel. Dalam dinamika Lagrangian, kuantitas fisis yang ditinjau adalah energi kinetik dan energi potensial partikel. Keuntungannya, karena energi adalah besaran skalar, maka energi bersifat invarian terhadap transformasi koordinat.

Dalam kondisi tertentu, tidaklah mungkin atau sulit menyatakan seluruh gaya yang beraksi terhadap partikel, maka pendekatan Newtonian menjadi rumit pula atau bahkan tak mungkin dilakukan. Oleh karena itu, pada perkembangan berikutnya dari mekanika, prinsip Hamilton berperan penting karena ia hanya meninjau energi partikel saja [1].
[sunting] Mekanika Klasik dan Fisika Modern

Meskipun mekanika klasik hampir cocok dengan teori "klasik" lainnya seperti elektrodinamika dan termodinamika klasik, ada beberapa ketidaksamaan ditemukan di akhir abad 19 yang hanya bisa diselesaikan dengan fisika modern. Khususnya, elektrodinamika klasik tanpa relativitas memperkirakan bahwa kecepatan cahaya adalah relatif konstan dengan Luminiferous aether, perkiraan yang sulit diselesaikan dengan mekanik klasik dan yang menuju kepada pengembangan relativitas khusus. Ketika digabungkan dengan termodinamika klasik, mekanika klasik menuju ke paradoks Gibbs yang menjelaskan entropi bukan kuantitas yang jelas dan ke penghancuran ultraviolet yang memperkirakan benda hitam mengeluarkan energi yang sangat besar. Usaha untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan ini menuju ke pengembangan mekanika kuantum.


Albert Einstein (lahir 14 Maret 1879 – meninggal 18 April 1955 pada umur 76 tahun) adalah seorang ilmuwan fisika teoretis yang dipandang luas sebagai ilmuwan terbesar dalam abad ke-20. Dia mengemukakan teori relativitas dan juga banyak menyumbang bagi pengembangan mekanika kuantum, mekanika statistik, dan kosmologi. Dia dianugerahi Penghargaan Nobel dalam Fisika pada tahun 1921 untuk penjelasannya tentang efek fotoelektrik dan "pengabdiannya bagi Fisika Teoretis".

Setelah teori relativitas umum dirumuskan, Einstein menjadi terkenal ke seluruh dunia, pencapaian yang tidak biasa bagi seorang ilmuwan. Di masa tuanya, keterkenalannya melampaui ketenaran semua ilmuwan dalam sejarah, dan dalam budaya populer, kata Einstein dianggap bersinonim dengan kecerdasan atau bahkan jenius. Wajahnya merupakan salah satu yang paling dikenal di seluruh dunia.
Albert Einstein, Tokoh Abad Ini (Person of the Century)

Pada tahun 1999, Einstein dinamakan "Tokoh Abad Ini" oleh majalah Time. Kepopulerannya juga membuat nama "Einstein" digunakan secara luas dalam iklan dan barang dagangan lain, dan akhirnya "Albert Einstein" didaftarkan sebagai merk dagang.

Untuk menghargainya, sebuah satuan dalam fotokimia dinamai einstein, sebuah unsur kimia dinamai einsteinium, dan sebuah asteroid dinamai 2001 Einstein.

Rumus Einstein yang paling terkenal adalah E=mc²
Daftar isi

* 1 Biografi
o 1.1 Masa muda dan universitas
o 1.2 Kerja dan Gelar Doktor
+ 1.2.1 Gerakan Brown
* 2 Pranala luar

[sunting] Biografi
[sunting] Masa muda dan universitas

Einstein dilahirkan di Ulm di Württemberg, Jerman; sekitar 100 km sebelah timur Stuttgart. Bapaknya bernama Hermann Einstein, seorang penjual ranjang bulu yang kemudian menjalani pekerjaan elektrokimia, dan ibunya bernama Pauline. Mereka menikah di Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. Keluarga mereka keturunan Yahudi; Albert disekolahkan di sekolah Katholik dan atas keinginan ibunya dia diberi pelajaran biola.

Pada umur lima tahun, ayahnya menunjukkan kompas kantung, dan Einstein menyadari bahwa sesuatu di ruang yang "kosong" ini beraksi terhadap jarum di kompas tersebut; dia kemudian menjelaskan pengalamannya ini sebagai salah satu saat yang paling menggugah dalam hidupnya. Meskipun dia membuat model dan alat mekanik sebagai hobi, dia dianggap sebagai pelajar yang lambat, kemungkinan disebabkan oleh dyslexia, sifat pemalu, atau karena struktur yang jarang dan tidak biasa pada otaknya (diteliti setelah kematiannya). Dia kemudian diberikan penghargaan untuk teori relativitasnya karena kelambatannya ini, dan berkata dengan berpikir dalam tentang ruang dan waktu dari anak-anak lainnya, dia mampu mengembangkan kepandaian yang lebih berkembang. Pendapat lainnya, berkembang belakangan ini, tentang perkembangan mentalnya adalah dia menderita Sindrom Asperger, sebuah kondisi yang berhubungan dengan autisme.

Einstein mulai belajar matematika pada umur dua belas tahun. Ada gosip bahwa dia gagal dalam matematika dalam jenjang pendidikannya, tetapi ini tidak benar; penggantian dalam penilaian membuat bingung pada tahun berikutnya. Dua pamannya membantu mengembangkan ketertarikannya terhadap dunia intelek pada masa akhir kanak-kanaknya dan awal remaja dengan memberikan usulan dan buku tentang sains dan matematika.

Pada tahun 1894, dikarenakan kegagalan bisnis elektrokimia ayahnya, Einstein pindah dari Munich ke Pavia, Italia (dekat kota Milan). Albert tetap tinggal untuk menyelesaikan sekolah, menyelesaikan satu semester sebelum bergabung kembali dengan keluarganya di Pavia.

Kegagalannya dalam seni liberal dalam tes masuk Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Institut Teknologi Swiss Federal, di Zurich) pada tahun berikutnya adalah sebuah langkah mundur dia oleh keluarganya dikirim ke Aarau, Swiss, untuk menyelesaikan sekolah menengahnya, di mana dia menerima diploma pada tahun 1896, Einstein beberapa kali mendaftar di Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. Pada tahun berikutnya dia melepas kewarganegaraan Württemberg, dan menjadi tak bekewarganegaraan.
'Einsteinhaus' di kota Bern di mana Einstein dan Mileva tinggal (di lantai 1) pada masa Annus Mirabilis

Pada 1898, Einstein menemui dan jatuh cinta kepada Mileva Marić, seorang Serbia yang merupakan teman kelasnya (juga teman Nikola Tesla). Pada tahun 1900, dia diberikan gelar untuk mengajar oleh Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule dan diterima sebagai warga negara Swiss pada 1901. Selama masa ini Einstein mendiskusikan ketertarikannya terhadap sains kepada teman-teman dekatnya, termasuk Mileva. Dia dan Mileva memiliki seorang putri bernama Lieserl, lahir dalam bulan Januari tahun 1902. Lieserl Einstein, pada waktu itu, dianggap tidak legal karena orang tuanya tidak menikah.
[sunting] Kerja dan Gelar Doktor
Albert Einstein, 1905

Pada saat kelulusannya Einstein tidak dapat menemukan pekerjaan mengajar, keterburuannya sebagai orang muda yang mudah membuat marah professornya. Ayah seorang teman kelas menolongnya mendapatkan pekerjaan sebagai asisten teknik pemeriksa di Kantor Paten Swiss pada tahun 1902. Di sana, Einstein menilai aplikasi paten penemu untuk alat yang memerlukan pengetahuan fisika. Dia juga belajar menyadari pentingnya aplikasi dibanding dengan penjelasan yang buruk, dan belajar dari direktur bagaimana "menjelaskan dirinya secara benar". Dia kadang-kadang membetulkan desain mereka dan juga mengevaluasi kepraktisan hasil kerja mereka.

Einstein menikahi Mileva pada 6 Januari 1903. Pernikahan Einstein dengan Mileva, seorang matematikawan. Pada 14 Mei 1904, anak pertama dari pasangan ini, Hans Albert Einstein, lahir. Pada 1904, posisi Einstein di Kantor Paten Swiss menjadi tetap. Dia mendapatkan gelar doktor setelah menyerahkan thesis "Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen" ("On a new determination of molecular dimensions") pada tahun 1905 dari Universitas Zürich.

Di tahun yang sama dia menulis empat artikel yang memberikan dasar fisika modern, tanpa banyak sastra sains yang dapat ia tunjuk atau banyak kolega dalam sains yang dapat ia diskusikan tentang teorinya. Banyak fisikawan setuju bahwa ketiga thesis itu (tentang gerak Brownian), efek fotolistrik, dan relativitas khusus) pantas mendapat Penghargaan Nobel. Tetapi hanya thesis tentang efek fotoelektrik yang mendapatkan penghargaan tersebut. Ini adalah sebuah ironi, bukan hanya karena Einstein lebih tahu banyak tentang relativitas, tetapi juga karena efek fotoelektrik adalah sebuah fenomena kuantum, dan Einstein menjadi terbebas dari jalan dalam teori kuantum. Yang membuat thesisnya luar biasa adalah, dalam setiap kasus, Einstein dengan yakin mengambil ide dari teori fisika ke konsekuensi logis dan berhasil menjelaskan hasil eksperimen yang membingungkan para ilmuwan selama beberapa dekade.

Dia menyerahkan thesis-thesisnya ke "Annalen der Physik". Mereka biasanya ditujukan kepada "Annus Mirabilis Papers" (dari Latin: Tahun luar biasa). Persatuan Fisika Murni dan Aplikasi (IUPAP) merencanakan untuk merayakan 100 tahun publikasi pekerjaan Einstein di tahun 1905 sebagai Tahun Fisika 2005.
Gerakan Brown
Albert Einstein, 1951 (saat ulang tahun ke 72, diambil oleh Arthur Sasse, photographer)

Di artikel pertamanya di tahun 1905 bernama "On the Motion—Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat—of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", mencakup penelitian tentang gerakan Brownian. Menggunakan teori kinetik cairan yang pada saat itu kontroversial, dia menetapkan bahwa fenomena, yang masih kurang penjelasan yang memuaskan setelah beberapa dekade setelah ia pertama kali diamati, memberikan bukti empirik (atas dasar pengamatan dan eksperimen) kenyataan pada atom. Dan juga meminjamkan keyakinan pada mekanika statistika, yang pada saat itu juga kontroversial.

Sebelum thesis ini, atom dikenal sebagai konsep yang berguna, tetapi fisikawan dan kimiawan berdebat dengan sengit apakah atom itu benar-benar suatu benda yang nyata. Diskusi statistik Einstein tentang kelakuan atom memberikan pelaku eksperimen sebuah cara untuk menghitung atom hanya dengan melihat melalui mikroskop biasa. Wilhelm Ostwald, seorang pemimpin sekolah anti-atom, kemudian memberitahu Arnold Sommerfeld bahwa ia telah berkonversi kepada penjelasan komplit Einstein tentang gerakan Brown.


untuk fisikawan James Prescott Joule, lihat James Prescott Joule.

Joule (simbol J) adalah satuan SI untuk energi dengan basis unit kg.m2/s2. Nama joule diambil dari penemunya James Prescott Joule. Joule disimbolkan dengan huruf J. Istilah ini pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Dr. Mayer of Heilbronn.
[sunting] Definisi

Joule diambil dari satuan unit yang didefinisikan sebagai besarnya energi yang dibutuhkan untuk memberi gaya sebesar satu Newton sejauh satu meter. Oleh sebab itu, 1 joule sama dengan 1 newton meter (simbol: N.m).

Selain itu, satu joule juga adalah energi absolut terkecil yang dibutuhkan (pada permukaan bumi) untuk mengangkat suatu benda seberat satu kilogram setinggi sepuluh sentimeter.

Definisi satu joule lainnya:

* Pekerjaan yang dibutuhkan untuk memindahkan muatan listrik sebesar satu coulomb melalui perbedaan potensial satu volt, atau satu coulomb volt (simbol: C.V).
* Pekerjaan untuk menghasilkan daya satu watt terus-menerus selama satu detik, atau satu watt sekon (simbol: W.s).

[sunting] Konversi

1 joule adalah sama dengan 107 erg.

1 joule mendekati sama dengan:

* 6.241506363x1018 eV (elektron volt)
* 0.239 kal (kalori)
* 2.7778x10-7 kwh (kilowatt-hour)
* 2.7778x10-4 wh (watt-hour)
* 9.8692x10-3 liter-atmosfer

Nuvola apps kruler.png Artikel bertopik pengukuran, satuan dan standar ini adalah sebuah rintisan. Anda dapat membantu Wikipedia dengan mengembangkannya.